First, do not over complicate this. The simple answer is that the
phosphate groups all along the DNA ladder make the very large negative
charge. I do not know about magnetic attractions, but when DNA is
put in an electric field, it moves to the positive pole because DNA is
negative and opposites attract. It is quite common to put DNA in a
gel material and apply an electric current to the gel. The DNA then
moves toward the positive pole. The smaller pieces can move faster
through the pores in the gel. This way one can separate DNA by its size.
The actual question I have to answer is: Why is the net charge of DNA
negative? And How are "they" utilizing the charge in the dye box?
When you ask why phosphate groups are charged, you get to a basic attribute of atoms. They can lose or gain electrons. Electrons are negative and protons are positive and they are present in equal numbers in the atom. When you put matter into water, all sorts of things can happen. One is that the atoms can lose an electron or gain an electron. This makes the atom either negatively charged or positively charged, because the atom always retains all of its protons. Phosphate groups are made of phosphate bonded to oxygen. The oxygen atoms are among those atoms that can gain an electron and become negatively charged in water. This is why phosphate groups and therefore DNA is negatively charged.
We do have some questions, if you have the time!!
Anyways, love your site. Don't worry if you don't have time to respond.
And have a very nice day!!
I am afraid that the primordial soup cells are the beginnings of cells. Of course, it cannot be known with absolute certainty, since we are at a loss as to exactly what primordial soup was.
As the theory goes, the primordial soup was gurgling along, minding its own business (as primordial soup is wont to do). As lots and lots of time passed, simple small molecules were created by random chemical reactions between primordial soup ingredients. Another version of the theory has the simple small molecules riding to earth on meteorites and such. In any case, after even more time, the small molecules include amino acids, fats, and eventually short chains of RNA.
The RNA is unique among the small primordial molecules because it can contain information. It can act as a template to make its exact opposite sequence (C for G and A for U). Then, the exact-opposite-sequence RNA can serve as a template to make the original sequence of RNA. So, by this time, a pre-cell would have amino acids and maybe some short proteins that had random orders of amino acids and some short RNA molecules that could "reproduce" themselves. These would all be surrounded by a layer of fat (fat will 'bead' up in a water environment). Even later in time, the RNA begins to act as the information source for creating exact sequences of amino acids to faithfully produce specific protein. Eventually, DNA evolves as the molecule that stores the information and RNA is the working version.
So, somewhere in this vast period of time, a cell has resulted that can reproduce itself. Like bacteria, it would have no organelles (they come much later in evolution). They would feed on the energy most abundant at that time, like methane (this was well before plants and the oxygen atmosphere we have today). I believe that the oldest bacteria now present on earth are the methanobacteria or archibacteria. Your class might try to find a web site that talks about the deep ocean vents and the types of life that exist at those places. These vents could be considered as sort of primordial (as well as of extreme pressure). All sorts of life exists there, in conditions we certainly could not endure. And these forms of life can not endure where we live.
Thank you again for your interest in our site. Hope this helps. Oh, and
by the way, I do not know of a name for the first cells; perhaps your
class can give them an appropriate title.
Learn more! Google:
cell science projects
home school aids
science fair projects
ęCopyright, 1998-2008, Eureka ! Science, Corp.